Developing Nations Will Be Left Behind in Broadband Coverage Says United Nations



As the globe fast tracks the agenda of connecting its citizens through broadband, it is becoming apparent that developing nations will lag behind in broadband expansion, a new UN report says.

The report presented by UN Broadband Commission for Digital Development, surveyed broadband access in 160 economies and found out that global internet penetration will reach 38.8 percent by end of this year but more than two-thirds of people in developed countries will still be unconnected.

“As the world becomes increasingly digital simple connectivity is no longer enough. Affordable broadband must be within reach of people, businesses and governments in all corners of the world,” Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said in his message for the launch of the report.

Rural connectivity has been a hard nut to crack for telecommunication companies seeing how rural Africa is expansive and most of all the high cost of infrastructure in those areas.

But the key to internet penetration is some of the developing nations is mobile. “By the end of 2013 there will be more than three times as many mobile broadband connections as there are conventional fixed broadband subscriptions making mobile broadband the ‘fastest growing technology in human history’,” according UNESCO.

Secretary-General of the UN International Telecommunications Union (ITU), Hamadoun Touré added on to say that Internet access is becoming paramount to development and even the world’s poorest nations need to make it a priority. Do you agree?

Mobile Money Proves Useful Once Again in Kenya’s Attack

Image: Safaricom
Image: Safaricom
Image: Safaricom

Mobile money has once again proven useful in mobilizing funds when disaster strikes in Kenya, with Safaricom’s M-Pesa aiding in collecting over Kshs32 Million barely 24 hours after launch.

In a funds collection drive dubbed #WeAreOne, Safaricom once again launched a PayBill number through which funds are being collected towards helping the victims of the Saturday attack at Westage shopping mall, that saw over 69 people killed and over 175 others injured.

“Let us come together to support victims and families of the #Westgate Mall Tragedy by donating on M-PESA PayBill 848484,” Safaricom posted yesterday on its official Facebook Page.

In less than three hours since posting the message, Safaricom reported that over Kshs4 million had been collected Kenyans and other well wishers, illustrating the power of both Mobile money and social media in the country.

Safaricom and other mobile services operators have always used their mobile money platforms to pull together financial resources from well wishers across the East African nation when disaster strikes, with a notable example being the Kenyans for Kenya fundraiser.

In the fundraiser held back in 2011, millions were collected towards helping the hunger stricken in the Northern part of the country.

This is just an example of how mobile money has changed how funds are collected in times of need.

Once again, feel free to donate via M-Pesa paybill number 84 84 84 towards helping the victims.

Orange Wins Award for Its Network Quality and Business Expansion in Africa



Orange Telecom has been awarded 2013 Africa Frost & Sullivan Company of the Year Award for its impressive business across the continent by offering quality services. The award was issued for Frost & Sullivan a telecommunication research company.

“Despite fierce competition, Orange has managed to maintain its leadership positions and enjoy significant growth rates in terms of subscribers and revenues,” said Frost & Sullivan ICT Industry Analyst Ishe Zingoni.

“This success is based not only on innovations and customer-centric products but also on visionary strategies and their robust implementation that has allowed steady market penetration.”

Orange has a pan African network is several countries but faces major huddles in terms of competition from the likes of MTN and Vodafone.

Orange is also leveraging its innovation centres to offer tailored, value-added services that aim to maximize customer value, enhance customer experience and grow market share across Africa. Its two Technocentres in Amman and Abidjan are dedicated to the development of new product and service offerings for consumers in the region, the report from Frost & Sullivan said.

“More importantly, Orange has been tapping into opportunities presented by local particularities such as a significant lack of access to credit cards, low broadband penetration as well as the positive, unprecedented uptake of mobile services,” observed Ishe Zingoni.

Safaricom to Increase Expenditure by Kshs 2 Billion to Meet Internet Demand

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Image from
Image from

Kenya’s largest mobile phone telecommunication company, Safaricom has announced that it will increase its spending to 8 per cent to try and curb the growing internet demand in the country.

According to a Bloomberg report, the company’s expenditure will increase to Kshs 27 billion from Kshs 25 billion. The company began an expensive venture to lay a 6,000 kilometre of fibre across the country to avail broadband access.

Kenya’s data usage and penetration is expected to overtake that of Egypt in five years, mostly driven by investment in fiber-optic networks and lower pricing per data unit, Bob Collymore CEO of Safaricom said.

Kenya’s internet users stand at 16 million with a bulk of the users having access through their mobile gadgets.

Liquid Telecom Digs In Deep for Fibre Network with Tanzania Telecommunications


Liquid Telecom

Liquid Telecom has signed a partnership with Tanzania Telecommunications Company Limited to extend the fibre network in the country by using the company’s backbone structure.

“Liquid Telecom Kenya has built a fibre link from Nairobi to Namanga on the border of Kenya and Tanzania which has the capacity of multiple STM 64s.  Traffic terminating in Tanzania will now pass onto TTCL’s fibre network providing Liquid Telecom’s customers – fixed and mobile operators, wholesale carriers and enterprises – with reliable, robust and fast connectivity throughout Tanzania,” the company announced.

The company prides itself as having one of the largest fibre network connections from Uganda to Cape Town South Africa totaling 15,000 kilometres of optic fibre.

Traffic into and out of Tanzania will now interconnect with Liquid’s existing networks in the neighbouring countries of Kenya, Rwanda, DRC and Zambia as well as the other countries in which Liquid is operational; Botswana, DRC, Lesotho, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe, the company said.

Liquid Telecom has been aggressively acquiring ISPs across Africa to create a pan African company offering connectivity.

Nic Rudnick, CEO of The Liquid Telecom Group, said: “We continue to expand and invest heavily in our fibre network to provide our customers with secure and reliable routes across Central, Eastern and Southern Africa”.

Started as a private company trying to compete with the big boys, Liquid Telecom has become the big boy with a presence in various African countries. We are yet to see it if will maintain competitive prices and services over the markets they operate in.

More Money More Problems, Egyptian Wanted For A $78,000 Donation


naguibNaguib Sawiris innocently donated  $78,000 to Mitt Romney’s campaign committee. However,  he is now wanted for illegally donating cash to the 2012 Republican US Presidential candidate.

Coming from a foreign national the huge donation has been termed as illegal by US’s Federal Election Commission, which is digging into the donation said to be the largest “contributions from possible foreign nationals”.

Though Romney is said to have returned $2,000 of the donation, the commission maintains that he breached its donation limits and that the donation was illegal as was coming from a foreign national.

Do you think Egypt’s Sawiris has any case to answer? or he just donated innocently?

Whopping 73% Discount By Vodafone For Hajj Pilgrims



Muslims in Ghana will enjoy this season more than the others as Vodafone Ghana has announced a fresh round of discounts for pilgrims making the journey to Mecca and Medina in the Middle East.

This discount, CMO Uche Ofodile said, was the only one in the country  and is that it has already been set up for all Vodafone prepaid customers and can be automatically accessed when they reach Saudi Arabia; running until the end of October.

Vodafone hopes that the discounts will enable more people to stay in touch with their loved ones while in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

On this discount, the telecommunication company will offer 73 percent discount on prepaid roaming charges for Hajj pilgrims travelling to Saudi Arabia this year.

This offer was also made in the last year’s season of Pilgrimage and was quite successful as many users continued to use their phone while in away from Ghana.

Giving a 73 percentage discount on calls sounds too good, so given that the mobile usage in Africa has since increased the question of network efficiency is quite inevitable.

It also could be that the people of Ghana have a different view in regards to this offer, maybe not as great as the telecommunication company is putting it across. It could be that they have other cheaper means of communicating with their loved ones given that technology has been changing since the last time the offer was on.

Well this are some of the questions that we could ask Vodafone if we could reach them.

CEO Weekends: MTN Has Over One Million Mobile Money Users


mtnMTN South Africa has recorded opening more than 1 million Mobile Money accounts and processed more than R1 billion in transactions in its first nine months of operations.

Mobile Money is powered by MTN and operated by TYME, a distribution partner of the South African Bank of Athens.

Account holders can access their accounts through USSD and deposit as well as withdraw cash at Pick n Pay and Boxer stores; they can also instantly transfer money to another cell phone number using the “send money” feature.

“MTN is proud to have partnered with retail outlets such as Pick n Pay and Boxer stores, who have a mass reach throughout the country to ensure that this service is accessible to customers, in line with our distribution strategy,” says Brian Gouldie, Chief Marketing Officer of MTN SA.

The Mobile Money service has been like a revolution in South Africa as it is setting new standards in lowest-cost banking in the country, with no monthly fees or minimum balance requirements.

The only Applicable fees are directly related to customer transactions, cash deposits and withdrawals cost R4 regardless of the amount, while sending money transactions costs R1.

Particular fees are waived for MTN customers, such as cash deposit and sending money fees. A maximum balance of R25 000 and a daily transaction limit of R1 000 are specified for the account.

The service allows customers on any mobile network to open an account; purchase airtime for any network, for which MTN customers receive a 5 percent “cash reward” into their accounts.

The only thing that is needed to open the account is to have a mobile phone, be a resident of South Africa with a green ID book and be of 16 years of age or older. You do not need to go to a bank or an MTN customer care centre.

“Of the current Mobile Money base, 44 percent of customers have performed a transaction in the last 90 days, representing a significant advantage over the GSMA’s reported industry benchmark of only 22%,” says TYME’s Coenraad Jonker. “As we continue to develop new product features, we expect the activity rate to improve even further.”

“Innovation is as important within Mobile Money as it is to the rest of MTN,” says Gouldie. We are delighted by the current success of Mobile Money, but we continue to press on for even stronger performance and growth.”

CEO Weekends: Taxation in Kenya’s Telecoms Sector Amongst the Highest in the World


BOB-COLLYMOREKenya has now been termed as a country with one of the highest taxes in the telecommunications sector, with Safaricom CEO, Bob Collymore revealing that Kshs28 in every Kshs100 spent by a customer goes to the government as tax.

Speaking yesterday at the telco’s Annual General Meeting, Collymore said that this tax burden could worsen if all the county governments continue asking for tax for laying of telecommunications infrastructure in their areas.

“We have seen one county like Laikipia, who have attempted to charge fees for someone putting fibre cable on the ground.” Said Collymore, “ICT has the ability to uplift the economy in the counties and the governors that I have been able to talk to have already recognized the ability of ICT.”

“We are urging the governors and the all the leaders in the counties not to take a short term approach because operators will avoid those counties and work with friendly ones,” added Collymore.

Safaricom is in the process of laying down over 2,300 km optic fibre in the country, and a spot check revealed the project to be underway in most parts of Nairobi and its environs.

Last week, Kenya’s ICT secretary Fred Matiang’i while speaking at the Kenya County ICT Summit also cautioned the country governments against imposing tax on telecommunication projects, saying that ICT was one of the key pillars towards achieving economic development.

Taxation in Kenya has become a contentious issue in the recent past, with the government spreading its taxman’s arm into mobile money transactions, something that saw transaction charges shoot up by 10 percent. Mobile phones have also been included in the taxation bracket, leaving many stakeholders in the ICT industry worried.

Yet Another Mobile Network License To Be Offered By Libyan Government


Libyana and Al Madar, state-owned telecommunication companies will soon have another competitor, as Libya is expected to issues a third operation with a three to six months.

The Libyan government wants to decrease its presence on the telecommunications in order to involve the private sector be it local or foreign.

Discussions between the economy ministry and its associated investment authority want to make the license more appealing to the telecommunications candidate.

Efforts by United Arab Emirates telecoms firm Etisalat to bid $825 million to get the third license in 2009 was went rock-bottom as the previous government revoked the tender.

The new government took back the stakes in the state-owned networks which had been controlled by the former dictator Colonel Gaddafi’s family following his death.

A research report from BuddeComm firm says that Libya’s telecoms market as well as the country’s economy and the telecommunications sector was crippled and disrupted by the civil war in 2011 but it is slowly recovering.

Vodafone Bids $6 Billion For 53% Stake In Maroc Telecom



After the sale of its Verizon stake, Vodafone is eying  to buy a majority stake in Maroc Telecom from France’s Vivendi which has been in talks with Etisalat.

Etisalat had put up a bid for Maroc Telecom’s 53% stake  at $5.4 billion. Other bidders had pulled out of the deal as one who buys the majority shareholder has to buy out the minority shareholders too, leaving it Etisalat as the only telco interested. One of the shareholders is the Moroccan government which owns 30% of Maroc Telecom.


Vodafone recently sold its 45 per cent stake in US-based Verizon Wireless for $130billion  and is now eying Maroc Telecom and France’s SFR. The Morocco based Maroc Telecom is one of the largest telecom operators in North Africa.

Vodafone is not new to Vivendi. In 2011, it sold its 44 per cent stake in SFR to Vivendi for $10.7 billion. Vodafone  also has a strong presence in Africa with a 65 per cent stake in Vodacom with operations in  Egypt, Tanzania, South Africa, Lesotho, Mozambique, and DRC.

Kenya Data Networks Finally Rebrands to Liquid Telecom Kenya

Liquid Telecom Launch
Mr. Shahab Meshki, CEO of Liquid Telecom Kenya (Left) with two executives from Rwanda and Zimbabwe respectively at the rebrand function.

Kenya Data Network has now fully rebranded to its new parent company Liquid Telecom today and adopted its corporate colors and identity.

The latest shift would enable the troubled KDN brand to finally get a home where it would grow financially. KDN has been juggled from Sameer group to Altech South Africa, and was dumped due to financial constraints before it was picked up by Liquid Telecom in March this year.

The chief executive officer of Liquid Telecom Kenya, Shahab Meshki said that the company has not only taken over the Kenyan market but has inculcated eleven brands across Africa in their bigger plan to be multinational across the continent.

“We are delighted to be part of the Liquid Telecom Group as such an exciting time for communications in Africa. As Liquid Telecom Kenya we’re perfectly placed to connect our customers to the potential growth in telecommunications throughout the African continent and beyond,” Meshki said.

The company has branches in Botswana, DRC, Lesotho, Mauritius, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and the UK.

Meshki told Techmoran that the company would manage the Kenyan subsidiary differently from its Altech ‘handlers’, in a bid to make profit by taking advantage of being in a larger network.

Great Broadband Coverage Increase Local Content in North Africa and Middle East

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A report by Pyramid Research suggests that the great broadband service and local content is the reason for the increase of over the top video (OTT).

Broadband penetration in the Arab world has seen services such as ICFLIX which has grown its market from MENA region to the US, a huge success.

“OTT video is a revitalizer that will create additional revenue sources while improving customer loyalty and lifetime value,” says Houda Bostanji, Analyst at Pyramid Research. Arab markets are seeing new initiatives from content providers, local aggregators and telcos.

In July 2013, Google announced the launch of a dedicated content hub on YouTube that is tailored to the Middle East and North Africa, bringing together over 500 Arabic TV shows. OSN, the MENA region’s leading pay-TV provider, was the first in the region to introduce video on demand on smartphones in July 2013. A tailored MENA strategy combined to actions differentiating from competitors will drive success for market participants, she notes.

West Africa has seen also different local content services such as Iroking music service and Iroko TV for Nigerian movies.

High Cross-Border Mobile Charges Hindering East Africa Integration, says ICT Secretary


Dr.-Fred-Matiangi-ICT-Cabinet-Secretary1Kenya’s ICT Cabinet Secretary, Fred Matiang’i, has urged telecom companies to lower cross-border call and data rates, saying that the current high charges are hampering the East Africa integration and business opportunities.

Kenya has one of the highest roaming charges, something that forces many people travelling outside the country to either switch off their phones or acquire temporary local SIM cards.

“It is a critical area that needs market-based solutions and not policy or regulatory intervention. If we impose a fee, it may affect the market by making it unpredictable for investors,” said Matiang’i while speaking at a forum on mobile roaming charges.

The ICT secretary however admitted that lowering of the roaming charges is not an easy task, saying that the rates are affected by external factors including tariffs and regulations in different countries. It is for this reason that telecom companies from different countries were encouraged to adopt a uniform policy and regulatory framework to allow for lower rates.

The Kenyan government will also be looking on how to offer incentives to ensure that mobile roaming charges are lowered, subject to African Telecommunications Union’s review of the proposal presented before them.

“The guidelines will help national regulators and operators determine the most appropriate way to apply the guidelines in their own markets,” said AUC secretary general Abdoulkarim Soumaila.

In the meantime, the government is in the process of investigating the excessive cross-border call rates before they take action.

South Africa’s Eden Telecom Introduces Bandwidth Management Software in the Market

Image from File

Eden Telecom the country’s leading communication provider has introduced Mesh Networks’ state of the art bandwidth management and optimization tools.

The solution which is pending patent, will enable Eden Telecom to monitor the use of their bandwidth and also optimize the connection for their customers.

“We pay dearly for back-haul bandwidth and I was looking for a cost effective solution, that worked properly,” said Egge Mulder, Managing Director at Eden Telecom, a leading communications company based in South Africa.

“Mesh Networks’ solutions are cost effective, automatically promote fairness and penalize abusers. These important factors have prompted Eden Telecom to begin deployment of the QuotaDefender® System to new and existing networks across South Africa.”

“Eden is a large and quickly growing ISP in South Africa. As our first customer in South Africa they are a great company to work with as we jointly worked together to meet the unique challenges faced in their geography,” said Brian A. Foley, VP Business Development, Mesh Networks.

“We are looking forward to doing business with Eden Telecom for many years to come, while building relationships with many other providers as we expand our presence in this region.”

Africa Mobile Networks Pumps US$550 million in Investments in Sub Saharan Africa



Africa Mobile Networks has announced that it will invest US$550 million in establishing good networks in Sub Saharan Africa.

The three year investment plan will see the company work with its licensed mobile operators in Africa to increase connectivity.

The company aims to build 5,000 base stations over the next 3 years to increase rural connectivity in sub Saharan Africa. It will target to have over 20 million subscribers who will generate US$650 in revenue initially.

“AMN builds and operates mobile network base stations in rural areas in Africa. The AMN base stations are connected to the core 2G/3G network of the licensed mobile operator and provide voice and data services to the operator’s subscribers,” the company said.

“AMN offers a compelling and risk-free proposition for mobile operators, to extend the operator’s existing coverage deep into the rural areas and acquire new subscribers and generate incremental revenues with guaranteed margins and no capex.”

The company offers to build the base stations which will include 2G and 3G capabilities especially in the rural areas and work out a revenue share base with the selected operators.

The company says that it will be able to increase the revenue stream for the mobile networks in the long run.

The company prides itself in its technology and the solutions they have offered the African market. In rural Africa today, their base stations is providing up to 400,000 voice minutes, 6,000 sms per month in an average of 4,400 people.

“The AMN investment is intended to fill a major gap which exists currently in many developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between the population currently served by mobile network services and the total population which can be served economically,” the company said.

Currently (in 2013) only around 66% of sub-Saharan Africa’s 830 million population (14% of the world’s total) is served by at least one mobile operator, and this is projected to grow only to 74% by the end of 2015, leaving more than 200 million people with no telecoms services whatsoever. Of these 200 million people, it is estimated that nearly 140 million can be served economically.


Nigeria’s Swift Networks To Test LTE With Over 500 Volunteers



 Nigerian broadband internet and data services provider Swift Networks said that they will be conducting Long Term Evolution (LTE) network tests with over 500 volunteers who will be putting the new network through its paces in preparation for its launch in Lagos.

“This will be Nigeria’s fastest and most reliable 4G LTE network; we will not rush this launch and will take every care to ensure that we get it right the first time. Getting the most aggressive users from our current customer base to test-drive it will enable us to debug and fine-tune it to meet the exerting demands of our target customer base”, said Chukwuma Okoye, the Chief Operating Officer at Swift.

“These volunteers, who have been on our network for at least three years, will give us feedback on the several performance metrics we are tracking including download and upload speeds, network latency and uptime. They will also ghost call the Call Centre as part of the predetermined performance indicators that are important to our market segment. These customers have been with us through our Pre-WiMAX and current 4G networks and bring along their treasured comparative memory of our services”, he said.

The network company saw the potential and the growing demand for high-speed internet, and according to Philip Sonibare, Assistant General Manager within Consumer Sales and Marketing at Swift Networks, they will continue to provide that to as many customers as possible.

“We continue to see the demand for true broadband internet skyrocket in Nigeria and our 4G LTE network rollout starting from Lagos responds to what customers want from their broadband internet experience – faster and more reliable services backed by 24×7 customer care,” he said.

According to Nigeria’s Vanguard, “Wireless spectrum is a finite resource and LTE uses it more efficiently than other technologies, creating more space to carry data traffic and services and to deliver a better network experience. It delivers at least 10 times faster download speed than 3G and 4 times that of WIMAX 4G networks.”

Telkom To Boost SMEs




Telkom Business has launched Business Circle programme, a congregate voice product specifically created for the small business sector.

This program will enable customers to create closed user groups comprising both Telkom fixed line and mobile services, and allows for unlimited free calling within the group.

Telkom Business aims to provide benefits to the SME market, offering the core components required for convergence, such as fixed data, cloud, IT and mobile capabilities.

“It is this kind of innovation that enables communication – a critical component to the success of any small business,” says Jan Pieterse, executive Product House at Telkom Business.

He further explains that he believes that Telkom being the country’s leading ICT provider it has an important role to play in aiding the development of the SME sector; as the products they develop would go a long way in enhancing efforts aimed at bringing the second economy into the first.

“Our aim is to provide valuable product offerings and solutions designed specifically for small business as they seek to be sustainable and competitive,” adds Pieterse, emphasizing that high quality and affordable communication is vital to the efficient functioning of all businesses.

“Businesses looking to tap into innovative solutions that enable productivity while enhancing convenience and cost-effectiveness must consider the convergence route – by using products like Business Circle – for their communication needs.”

According to Pieterse, Business Circle brings together the best of fixed and mobile.

“Our unique offering is the best voice value available in the market currently. With unlimited free calling between the various employees of a company, it is guaranteed to drastically lower costs and significantly increase efficiency and productivity in any organization.”

Free Social Networking From Telkom


social media

Telkom Internet has launched free anytime data for specific social networking services, to make things better, it has also announced free data for subscribers between 12am and 6am daily and while the capacity of all Telkom Internet packages of 5Gb or more will be doubled at no additional charge.

This offers began to run from the first day of this month; the enhancement to its SoftCap 5Gb and higher offerings to include free specific social networking and the Night Surfer are available until 31 March 2014.

When Telkom is talking about free social networking it has that user who loves to use Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn. The offer runs 24 hours a day, without incurring costs from their in-bundle data. Customers can also make use of the instant messaging chat clients on WhatsApp; Yahoo Messenger, MSN Messenger and Google Talk without incurring additional charges.

This however does not extend to video streaming such as YouTube videos or links to other web sites via these platforms. Once a user reaches his SoftCap limit, the social networking services and night surfer will also be subject to SoftCap.

“Social networks are extremely popular communication platforms and we understand that our customers need to constantly interact and be engaged, hence their relationship with these platforms. This offer empowers our customers to access the information they want from the platform of their choice,” says Manelisa Mavuso, MD of Telkom’s Consumer and Retail Services Division.

“I believe that free data access to social networking is a game-changer as we are giving our customers free and greater choice in what is fast becoming a preferred communications platform” he adds.

The companies will also double the capacity of its 5Gb or more internet packages from 1 September 2013 until 31 March 2014. For customers on 1 Gb packages the option to upgrade to a 5Gb package means an additional 5Gb as well as the promotion for social networking and Night Surfer.

“We are enhancing our value proposition to truly differentiate our broadband offerings to satisfy the customer’s growing appetite for media rich online content, thus enabling our residential customers to download and watch more movies, and music and so forth, this sort of innovation is in-line with our strategy to deliver a great value and seamless connected home experience,” Mavuso says.

M-Pesa Partners With Vodacom Tanzania



Mobile money in East Africa has grown significantly and is continuing to push through. Vodacom Tanzania has announced it latest contract with the Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA) for an M-Pesa partnership.

The annunciation of this agreement has been well received and is likely to spur further growth in the mobile money sector in the East African country.

Vodacom said that this contract comes with a number of benefits, for example, vehicle owners will now be able to pay for licenses through the mobile money scheme, allowing business to move more smoothly and with ease.

TRA Director of Tax Payers Services and Education, Richard Kayombo, said that M-Pesa would go a long way in easing the purchase of vehicle road licenses.

It is estimated that about $1.2-million worth of transactions were already made facilitating road license payments in the first two weeks of the service.

“The furthering of mobile money schemes in East Africa, and notably Tanzania, are a major means for economic growth,” said Vodacom.

The company also added that it would enable users to transfer money for licenses quickly and without hassle in order to complete transactions in a timely manner.