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Active Adversaries Increasingly Exploit Stolen Session Cookies- Sophos

Sophos today announced that hackers are using stolen session cookies to bypass Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) and gain access to corporate resources, in a report released by Sophos X-Ops.

The report dubbed, “Cookie stealing: the new perimeter bypass,” active adversaries are using stolen session cookies to bypass Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) and gain access to corporate resources. The attackers obtain access to corporate web-based and cloud resources using the cookies, then use them for further exploitation such as business email compromise, social engineering to gain additional system access, and even modification of data or source code repositories.

“Over the past year, we’ve seen attackers increasingly turn to cookie theft to work around the growing adoption of MFA. Attackers are turning to new and improved versions of information stealing malware like Raccoon Stealer to simplify the process of obtaining authentication cookies, also known as access tokens,” said Sean Gallagher, principal threat researcher, Sophos. “If attackers have session cookies, they can move freely around a network, impersonating legitimate users.”

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Session, or authentication, cookies are a particular type of cookie stored by a web browser when a user logs into web resources. If attackers obtain them, then they can conduct a “pass-the-cookie” attack whereby they inject the access token into a new web session, tricking the browser into believing it is the authenticated user and nullifying the need for authentication. Since a token is also created and stored on a web browser when using MFA, this same attack can be used to bypass this additional layer of authentication. Compounding the issue is that many legitimate web-based applications have long-lasting cookies that rarely or never expire; other cookies only expire if the user specifically logs out of the service.

Thanks to the malware-as-a-service industry, it’s getting easier for entry-level attackers to get involved in credential theft. For example, all they need to do is buy a copy of an information-stealing Trojan like Raccoon Stealer to collect data like passwords and cookies in bulk and then sell them on criminal marketplaces, including Genesis. Other criminals on the attack chain, such as ransomware operators, can then buy this data and sift through it to leverage anything they deem useful for their attacks.

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Conversely, in two of the recent incidents that Sophos investigated, attackers took a more targeted approach. In one case, the attackers spent months inside a target’s network gathering cookies from the Microsoft Edge browser. The initial compromise occurred via an exploit kit, and then the attackers used a combination of Cobalt Strike and Meterpreter activity to abuse a legitimate compiler tool to scrape access tokens. In another case, the attackers used a legitimate Microsoft Visual Studio component to drop a malicious payload that scraped cookie files for a week.

James Musoba
James Musoba
Studying Africa's startup and technology scene. I always look forward to discovering new exciting inventions and vibrant entrepreneurs.

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